Introduce External Calls


Contracts can be created "from outside" via Ethereum transactions or from within Flint Contracts. They contain persistent data in state variables and functions that can modify these variables. Calling a function on a different contract (instance) will perform an EVM Function call and thus switch the context such that state variables in the old context are inaccessible.


Calls to untrusted contracts can introduce several unexpected risks and errors.

When the internal contract calls to an external contract (i.e. the callee contract) the callee may execute, potentially malicious, but always arbitrary code. This code can itself include external calls to any other contract, which themselves allow arbitrary code execution and so on.

As such, every external call should be treated as a security risk because it requires the integrity of every contract in this chain.

However external calls are necessary to accomplish key features of smart contracts, including:

  • Paying other users

  • Interacting with other Contracts e.g. Tokens or Wallets

There have been several published best practice guidelines for programming with external calls (Consensys Recommendations, OpenZeppelin, Solium Security, Mythril, Solcheck). This proposal will attempt to integrate best practices into the language design. Below are causes for concern with external calls:

  1. Contracts are untrustworthy by default;

  2. External calls may execute arbitrary code;

  3. External calls may fail silently;

  4. Interfaces may be incorrectly specified.

1. Contracts are untrustworthy by default

// Bad style:
Bank.withdraw(100); // Unclear whether trusted or untrusted
function makeWithdrawal(uint amount) { // It isn't clear that this function is potentially unsafe
// Better style:
UntrustedBank.withdraw(100); // Untrusted external call
TrustedBank.withdraw(100); // External but trusted bank contract maintained by XYZ Corp
function makeUntrustedWithdrawal(uint amount) { // Name is explicit

It is possible to indicate trustworthiness of contracts using proper naming of functions and variables. However, this is at the discretion of the programmer and can be easily overlooked when dealing with a more complex codebase.

Instead, the language syntax itself (or the compiler) should make it plain that external calls are potentially dangerous.

2. External calls may execute arbitrary code

Calling functions of an external contract is also problematic since the control flow is completely taken over by the called contract and there is no way to limit exactly what the external contract will do. Consider a simple bank-like contract which stores the balances of clients (in the put function) and then allows clients to take out their balance (in the get function):

contract HoneyPot {
var balances: [Address: Int] = [:]
HoneyPot :: caller <- (any) {
public init() {
public mutating func put(implicit value: Wei) {
balances[caller] = value.getRawValue()
public mutating func get() {
if (!caller.collectMoney.value(balances[caller])()) {
balances[caller] = 0

In put, the contract sets the value of the caller address balance to zero only after checking if sending Ether to caller goes through.

But consider a malicious AttackContract designed to take advantage of the badly-written get function:

contract AttackContract {
public init() {
let honeyPot: Address = 0x.... // address of the deployed HoneyPot
// START OF SOLIDITY SYNTAX; // so balances[caller] is 1000; // start the attack
public mutating func collectMoney(implicit value: Wei) {
// START OF SOLIDITY SYNTAX; // collect more money!

The call chain might look something like:

  • AttackContract.init()

    • HoneyPot.put()

    • HoneyPot.get()

      • AttackContract.collectMoney()

        • HoneyPot.get()

          • AttackContract.collectMoney()

            • ...

That is, the collectMoney function calls HoneyPot.get() before the call to collectMoney is finished. This means that balance[caller] is never set to zero and more and more money (in multiples of the original balance[caller]) is transferred from HoneyPot to AttackContract.

This illustrates how easily control flow can be hijacked due to external calls.

In Solidity, someAddress.send() and someAddress.transfer() are considered safe against re-entrancy due to a workaround: while these methods still trigger code execution, the called contract is only given a stipend of 2300 gas which is currently only enough to log an event. This:

  • Prevents re-entrancy attacks but is incompatible with any contract whose fallback function requires 2300 gas or more.

  • Sometimes the programmer won't want this, but then has to fall back onto the dangerous raw calls.

In most cases, re-entrancy is not desirable, so Flint should prevent external calls to call functions of the caller (Flint) contract.

3. External calls may fail silently

Solidity offers low-level call methods that work on rawAddress:, address.callcode(), address.delegatecall(), address.send(). These low-level methods never throw an exception so they fail silently.

The following are examples of pre-exisiting solutions for external calls in solidity.

// Fails silently:
// This is doubly dangerous, as it will forward all remaining gas and doesn't check for result:;
// If deposit throws an exception, the raw call() will only return false and transaction will NOT be reverted:"deposit()")));
// Better:
if (!someAddress.send(55)) {
// Some code to handle the failure

Flint should force the programmer to deal with potential failures of any external calls, by enforcing that any external call should be wrapped in a do-try-catch block.

4. Interfaces may be incorrectly specified

Minor errors in interfaces may lead to wrong code being executed. For instance, consider the following deployed contract:

contract Bob {
public func set(value: Bool) {
// ...

To call Bob.set(), the contract Alice has to specify the interface (trait) for Bob, but it may easily be specified incorrectly:

contract trait Bob {
public func set(value: Int) // note Int instead of Bool
contract Alice {
func callBob() {
let bob: Bob = 0x...

The two will produce different method IDs. As a result, Alice will call the fallback function of Bob rather than set, most likely with unwanted results.

This type of error is responsible for the bug in King of the Ether (line numbers: 100, 107, 120, 161)

Proposed solution

The following solution was reworked following the discussion on October 25th, with the following goals in mind, roughly in order of decreasing importance:

  1. External contracts should be considered untrustworthy, and there will not (yet) be a way to change this.

  2. External calls should always be surrounded with do-catch blocks, where any call implies a try.

  3. Any data related to an external call should be specified at the call site.

  4. External calls should have a syntax distinct from regular function calls.

  5. The supporting syntax should feel similar to Swift (wherever possible).

A valid external call should specify the following data:

  • Contract (callee) address

  • Function name

  • Function arguments

  • Gas allocation

  • Ether (Wei) allocation

Gas allocation and Ether allocation are special values that the external function uses / consumes, but they do not form a part of its signature; they are implicit in EVM. In the remainder of the text they will be referred to as "hyper-parameters".

Code example

The function interface of the external contract has to be specified using an "external" trait. External traits are similar to contract traits, but have a number of limitations, due to the nature of the low-level ABI of Solidity and the fact that Flint-specific features cannot be supported on Solidity contracts:

  • Type states cannot be specified

  • Caller protection blocks cannot be specified

  • mutating or public keywords cannot be specified on functions

  • Default implementations cannot be specified

  • Self cannot be used

Some additional caveats:

  • Function arguments can be given labels, but these are for internal use only (since they do not affect the ABI signature)

  • Functions can be given return types, but there is no trivial way to check if a returned value is of the required type (e.g. a Bool true value has the same representation as a Int 1 in the Solidity ABI)

  • External traits have an implicit constructor, so that an address can be "cast" into the trait, allowing function calls

  • Functions of external trait instances cannot be called using the regular function call syntax, but must use the call keyword, which also allows hyper-parameters to be specified

external trait Alpha {
func simpleFunction()
func functionWithArguments(value: Int, tax: Int)
func functionWithReturn() -> Int
func functionWithBoolReturn() -> Bool
func expensiveFunction()

The trait can then be used in Flint code. First, to initialise it from an Address, we use the implicit constructor of external contracts:

let someAddress: Address = 0x... // deployed Alpha contract
let alpha: Alpha = Alpha(adress: someAddress)

Then we can call functions on alpha using the call keyword, which is modeled to resemble the semantics of try in Swift. It has the following grammar:

externalCall =
"call" WSP
[ "(" [expression] *( "," WSP expression ) ")" ] WSP
[ "!" / "?" ] SP

In other words, following the call keyword, hyper-parameters may optionally be specified, then ! (exit on error) or ? (return an Optional) may optionally change the call mode, then the actual external call is specificed.

Examples of (syntactically) valid uses of the ! mode, which will cause a transaction rollback on any error:

call! alpha.simpleFunction()
call! alpha.functionWithArguments(value: 1, tax: 2)
call(value: Wei(100))! alpha.expensiveFunction()
call(gas: 5000)! alpha.simpleFunction()

Examples of (syntactically) valid uses of the default mode, which must be used in a do-catch block:

do {
call alpha.simpleFunction()
} catch ExternalCallError {
// recover gracefully
do {
call(value: Wei(100)) alpha.expensiveFunction()
call(gas: 5000) alpha.simpleFunction()
} catch ExternalCallError {
// recover gracefully from either (!) failure

Examples of (syntactically) valid uses of the ? mode, which returns an optional, and is therefore best used in a if let ... condition:

if let returnedValue: Int = call? alpha.functionWithReturn() {
// function returned value, here available as `returnedValue`
} else {
// no value returned, handle gracefully
if let example: Bool = call(gas: 5000)? alpha.functionWithBoolReturn() {
// function returned value, here available as `example`
} else {
// no value returned, handle gracefully

Examples of invalid uses:

// error: user must specify an amount of Wei to pay (@payable)
call! alpha.expensiveFunction()
// error: must be used in `if let`
call? alpha.functionWithReturn()
// error: function doesn't have a return type
if let example: Int = call? alpha.simpleFunction() {
// ...
// error: return type doesn't match expected type
if let example: Int = call? alpha.functionWithBoolReturn() {
// ...
// error: must use `call` for external calls

Hyper parameters

The call keyword accepts the following parameters:

  • gas - an Int value, specifying the computational time allowed for the external call; default: 2300

  • value - a Wei value that is paid into the external contract; must be specified for functions marked @payable, otherwise invalid

  • reentrant - a Bool value that specifies if it should be possible to call functions of the current (Flint) contract from the external contract during an external call (see re-entrancy problem discussed in motivation and re-entrancy discussion below); default: false


Just before an external call, the Flint contract is moved into a special type state. This type state is generated automatically by the compiler, and it disallows any function to be called, preventing re-entrancy issues. After the external call is finished (no matter what the result was) the contract is placed back into the previous type state.

This behaviour may be overridden if the user chooses to do so by specifying reentrant: true as a hyper-parameter to the call keyword.

Implementation requirements

In the parser:

  • call keyword, grammar for externalCall expression (statement?)

  • do-catch blocks

  • if let blocks

In the semantic analyser:

  • check that @payable functions are given wei

  • check that non-@payable functions are not given wei

  • check that if let ... = call? ... calls a function with a return type

  • check that if let ... = call? ... calls a function with the correct return type

  • check that call? ... is used in if let ... (may be a parser check)

  • put bound return variable in scope of if let ... block

In the IR generator:

  • better exception handling (stack of exception handlers / addresses for each type of exception, for now only ExternalCallError)

  • rollback on unhandled exceptions / ! mode

  • bind optional value to a variable in if let ...

  • add special external call type state, enter into it before a call, leave it after a call

Test suite:

  • add tests

Solidity ABI

Behind the scenes all of these interfaces are decoded into ABI function calls. ABI Specification

function: sam(bytes, bool, uint[])
called with: "dave", true, [1,2,3]
0: a5643bf2 <-- method ID
4: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060 <-- arg1 offset
32: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 <-- true
64: 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0 <-- offset 2
96: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004 <-- length of arg1
128: 6461766500000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 <-- "dave"
160: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003 <-- length of arg2
192: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 <-- arg2
224: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002 <-- arg2
256: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003 <-- arg2


If the contract storage is changed after an external call (i.e. the external call modified the state) then a warning should be emitted. This should encourage two things:

  1. checks-effects-interactions pattern.

  2. Pull over push for external calls. This is considered a best practice as it helps isolate each external call into its own transaction that can be initiated by the recipient of the call.

// Without push-pull
function bid() payable {
if (highestBidder != 0) {
highestBidder.transfer(highestBid); // if this call consistently fails, no one else can bid
highestBidder = msg.sender;
highestBid = msg.value;
// With push-pull
mapping(address => uint) refunds;
function bid() payable external {
require(msg.value >= highestBid);
if (highestBidder != 0) {
// Push: record the refund that this user can claim
refunds[highestBidder] += highestBid;
// Could also emit an event as an Asynchronous trigger for the previous bidder to withdrawRefund
highestBidder = msg.sender;
highestBid = msg.value;
function withdrawRefund() external {
uint refund = refunds[msg.sender];
refunds[msg.sender] = 0;

Alternatives considered

Blind Calls

This acts as a direct translation to the ABI that gets called behind the scenes. This gives a low-level interface to the contract but is also highly prone to error.

func callFoo(contractAddress: Address) {"foo(uint256)")), a)

Variable binding

Results could also be bound to variables instead of an identifier:

let boundReturn: Int = try! alpha!.withdraw()
try let boundReturn: Int = alpha!.withdraw then {
// Use bound return

Guard-like syntax

We could flip the catching of the call so you only specify the catch statement after it then continue code execution as normal. This would reduce the indentation of the language, but would then not match the if statement syntax.

let alpha: Director<Alpha> = 0x000... with Alpha
try alpha!.doesNothing() else {
// If it fails
// If it succeeds execution will continue
try! boundReturn <- alpha!.withdraw()
// Optionally does something with boundReturn

Parameters of the call are appended

Calls need information such as the amount of gas to allocate or the Ether value to transfer. This contradicts the return type as: is of type Void and so must be but .value() is not a property of the Void type. This means special cases would be needed for the type checker, and is just generally confusing.

contract A {
public func foo(i: Int){
// ...
func callData(address: Address) {

Call Specification

This was rejected because it confuses both the function name, the arguments and the hyper parameters for the call. They are all assigned together.

call Name {
let name: String = "foo"
let arg1: Int = 5
let value: Wei = 10
let gas: Gas = 800

Previous version of this proposal

The following was the previous version of this proposal. Several issues have since been addressed, namely that contracts are always untrusted, that hyper-parameters were specified on a stateful Director (leading to potential problems when the state is specified far from an actual call), that the syntax seemed too different from Swift.

// external contract Alpha
contract trait Alpha(State1, State2) {
var owner: Address
Alpha @(State1) :: (any) {
func doesNothing()
Alpha @(any) :: (owner) {
func doesNothingWithArgs(a: Int, b: Int, c: Int)
func withdraw() -> Int
func deposit(value: Int) -> Bool
Alpha @(any) :: (any) {
func expensiveFunction()
contract AlphaUser {
public init() {
// Director allows external calls and setting of hyper-parameters
let alpha: Director<Alpha> = 0x... // address of a deployed Alpha contract
try alpha!.doesNothing() then {
// Successful Call
} catch {
// If it fails
try! alpha!.doesNothingWithArgs(a: x, b: y, c: z)
// Catch can not be provided by using try!, then if the call fails then transaction reverts.
try! alpha!.withdraw() // This flags an error as the return value is not dealt with
try! boundReturn <- alpha!.withdraw() then {
// Optionally do something with boundReturn
// Setting hyper parameters
// Asset types are atomically transferred to preserve special properties.
alpha!.allocate(Gas(2000)) // Removes the need for a bang
try! alpha.expensiveFunction()

The following features were completely removed from this proposal, since they have been deemed too ambitious / unnecessary for the time being:

  • Importing trusted contracts from the Flint Package Manager

  • Importing contracts from URLs

  • Deploying contracts

An example of the above features:

// Creates a contract from the data stored in Flint Package Manager
import flint:0x... as ERCToken
// Then in a function:
import as URLContract
import FileContract
import Directory.Contract
// Then in a function:
let contract: Contract<URLContract> = deploy(URLContract)
contract.argumentName() // Value and Gas are automatically set based upon properties